Academic paper on the drowning chain of survival

Looking at the first link

PREVENT DROWNING - Be safe in & around the water 

 It has been estimated that most drownings are preventable.

The ability to avoid a drowning contrasts withthe high rates of poor outcomes following these type of incidents. Drowning requires multiple layers ofprotection. To be effective, drowning prevention must be used by individuals near, on or around the water, andthose who supervise or care for others in water settings.

MAJOR ADVICE ACTIONS

  • Stay within arm’s reach of children when in or near the water 
  • Swim in water-safe areas where there lifeguards
  • Fence pools, spas and other aquatic with 4-sided or any fencing
  • Always wear a lifejacket when using watercraft (eg. Boat, kayak etc.)
  • Learn how to swim and water-safety survival skills.

Signs of trouble

Here are the major signs a child may be drowning, and they may be dramatically different than what you expect:

There will be no call for help: If you can’t breathe, you can’t speak or yell.

You may see their mouths sinking and bobbing back up repeatedly: If you see bobbing going on, you should check on the kid who is doing it. He could be in distress and you might be missing the signs.

They won’t be waving for help: Their instinct is to use their hands to pull their mouths out of the water so they can breathe, not wave for help.

They won’t be able to help their rescuer: They won’t be able to call attention to themselves, grab onto rescue equipment, or reach out for a lifeguard.

They are upright in the water and may not be kicking: If you see a child who is upright and not kicking, along with any of these other signs, get to them as soon as possible.

The incident happens quickly: A person who is drowning doesn’t have much time -- they can only struggle for 20 to 60 seconds before they go under.

A child isn’t making any noise: As every parent can tell you, children who are playing in the water make a lot of noise. If your child can’t be heard anymore when she’s playing in the water, assume something is wrong.

Source: gibsonins.com

Good Samaritans help by the marina

Source:

MAYVILLE, N.Y. (WKBW) — The Chautauqua County Sheriff tells 7 Eyewitness News that three children and a man were rushed to local hospitals after a boat explosion on Chautauqua Lake.

According to Sheriff James Quattrone, the boat exploded shortly after fueling up. It happened near the Chautauqua Marina in Mayville Wednesday evening.

The children were flown to Oishei Children’s hospital. The father was flown to Erie County Medical Center. The sheriff says the injuries appear serious, but non-life threatening.

The sheriff’s office reports that good Samaritans and employees from the marina helped to get the man and children to shore.

Helicopters from Starflight, Mercy Flight and STAT MedEvac responded.

The cause of the explosion is under investigation.